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Synergy of melanin and vitamin-D may play a fundamental role in preventing

SARSCoV-2, is the root cause for the late pandemic, novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A sick individual experiences mild to serious respiratory problems. Among infected populations, barely any symptomatic patients recoup without hospitalization and the vast majority of them are hospitalized for extraordinary treatment. This is a remarkable worldwide war, where hospitals are in the front line and doctors being commanding officers along with the medical support team, are constantly battling against COVID-19 [1, 2]. By and large, COVID-19 manifests symptoms like other SARS-CoV- infected diseases, advances rapidly towards developing ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome) with septic stun, in worst circumstances failure of multiple organs take place because of viral-infection-instigated cytokine storm in the body [3]. The novel corona virus or SARS-CoV-2 is commonly spread via little miniscule droplets liberated into the surrounding environment when the infected persons unguardedly sneeze, cough or even talk with people in close contact [4].

There is no affirmed anti-COVID-19 medication in the existing shelf [5]. A few clinical trials are currently in progress and a few drugs, for example, chloroquine, remdesivir, arbidol, and favipiravir have been tried yet none of them is fruitful altogether to improve the survivability rate [6]. As of now, there are no particular guidelines and treatment regime for COVID-19. Most treatment methodologies are symptomatic and based on supportive therapy. Scarcely any medications have demonstrated great adequacy at the cell level which need further trial and approval. A few antimicrobials including antiviral drugs were utilized to treat COVID-19 patients, for example, blend of remdesivir or lopinavir or ritonavir and chloroquine [7,8,9] also several drugs are in pipeline [10]. Following application of drugs hostile to viral and other microbes, the shattered natural parity of the gut microbiome further contributes to the progression of morbidity in patients. Corona patients predominantly experience the ill effects of decreasing white-blood corpuscles (WBC) and lymphocytes when there is an urgency of maintaining a threshold level of cytokine level including IL-6 and IL-10 [11]. In this situation, coordinated host-immune based treatments remain decisive to get by against COVID-19.

Nutrient treatment, especially Vit-C and Vitamin D, is a long known practice against the coronavirus affected patients [12]. As of late, phase-3 trials of Vitamin D treatment with different dose management for COVID patients are in progress [13]. Vitamin-D might be a possibly intriguing steady treatment against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Anyway, no logical proof or scientific evidence has been perceived up to this point. Here, a cross-talk between Vitamin D and melanin synthesis pathway has been reported with a fascinating observation where by-products of melanin synthesis unequivocally tie to the dynamic site of human protease furin which is vital for the SARS-CoV-2- mediated disease progression [14].

Vitamin D: contribution to human health

Vitamin D is commonly obtained from food sources or synthesized within human skin [15]. It is widely documented that this vitamin modulates both the adaptive or innate immuity (Fig. 1). Vitamin- D receptors (VDRs) that are displayed on B-cells/ T-cells or on the APCs (antigen presenting cells) can synthesize an active metabolite from vitamin-D. An essential activity of Vitamin D is the maintainance of calcium homeostasis and skeletal health. In the liver, hydroxylated Vitamin D enters a dynamic form, i.e. 25 OH vitamin D3 (also called 25D). Inside the kidney, 25D gets transformed to another dynamic form i.e. -1,25,dihydroxy vitamin D (1, 25 D), also called calcidiol via the action…

Read More:Synergy of melanin and vitamin-D may play a fundamental role in preventing

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